IInformatica Economica Vol. XI No. 2/2007


Improving Organizations by Replacing the  "Mechanical" Model with the "Organic" one
George Moldoveanu, Ion Gh. Roşca, Octavian Thor Pleter 5

Abstract: Organizations are currently viewed as artificial structures. However, in our opinion, organizations seem to match a biological structure much better. This paper explores this new approach with some interesting conclusions and results: organizations aim at perpetual exis-tence and continuous adaptation. We advance the ideas of organizational "instincts", organ-izational pathology and organizational optimization using genetic algorithms. In competitive markets, organizations are in a natural selection process, which actually is part of a natural genetic algorithm. This process may be simulated in an artificial multidisciplinary optimiza-tion environment, based on minimizing a Total Costs and Risks objective function. Unlike the gradient optimization methods, the genetic algorithms may be applied to such problems with thousands of degrees of freedom. This opens the way to the organizational structure optimiza-tion through genetic algorithms.
Keywords: organization, genetic algorithms, multidisciplinary optimization, organizational analysis, organizational structure

Task Flow Modeling in Electronic Business Environments
Cristea Boboila 13

Abstract: In recent years, internet based commerce has developed as a new paradigm. Many factors such as "at home delivery", easy ordering, and usually lower prices contributed to the success of the e-commerce.
However, more recently, companies realized that one of the major factors in having a suc-cessful internet based business is the design of a user interface that is in concordance with the users' expectations, which includes both functionality and user-friendly features. The func-tionality feature of an e-business interface is one of the most important elements when dis-cussing about a specific internet based business. In our paper, we present methods to model task flows for e-business interfaces. We strengthen our study with the design modeling of a practical scenario that may appear in an on-line commercial environment.
Keywords: task flow, e-business, hierarchical model, user interface, human-computer interac-tion.

Comprehensive Innovation and its Implications on New High-Tech Product Development
Stelian BRAD 18

Abstract: Nowadays, innovation represents an essential ingredient within organizations for their survival in a strong competitive marketplace. Innovations emerging from R&D projects could represent key factors for the foundation of new businesses. Various supporting programs for establishing innovative start-ups within business incubators, as well as spin-offs within uni-versities are promoted by authorities at local and national levels. Statistics have shown that only a small percentage of these initiatives (around 30%) succeed to survive more than three years. There are various causes which keep the success rate only at this level, but a major one is the lack in understanding the complex nature of innovation by the people which initiate these businesses; they are mainly focused on technological innovation (product innovation). This paper is going to give a broader perspective on innovation, seeing it as an integrated model of product innovation, marketing innovation, production process innovation and busi-ness model innovation over their life-cycles. From this enhanced view of innovation, conse-quences on new product development are further analysed.
Keywords: innovation, spin-off, new product development, life-cycle model

An Assessment of the Quality of the Romanian Urban Web Sites
Sofia Elena COLESCA 26

Abstract: The local authorities are giving increasing prominence to provision of information online through websites. Seen in a wider perspective, the urban web sites play a key role in allowing every citizen to achieve their full potential and to participate fully in society. Con-versely, citizens’ awareness and expectations of Internet based online public services have also increased. Although the numbers of the different urban web portals have increased rap-idly in the last years, the success of these sites will largely depend on their accessibility and quality.
The purpose of this report is to present the results from a comprehensive assessment of the urban web sites across Romania. An instrument has been developed for evaluating the quality of the websites. It is based upon approaches to evaluation that have been documented in the published literature, interviews of people responsible for websites, and testing of websites at different levels of local government.
Results show that not only are there wide variations in the spectrum of information and ser-vices provided by these urban web sites, but that significant work still needs to be undertaken in order to make these sites examples of “best practice” e-Government services. The overall picture shows that there is still much work to be done, but the study identifies key areas of concern which, if dealt with, would lead to the situation improving significantly.
Keywords: urban web sites, e-government, quality

The simulation of a PPC company using instruments offered by Yahoo! Search marketing
Daniela Dănciulescu, Luminiţa Popescu, Costel Ionaşcu 34

Abstract: The Internet offers a lot of opportunities which may use to earn money. The big com-panies like Yahoo, Google or others try to attract more customers by developing new tools for better use of Internet. This paper try to show through a simulation, how can we use the in-struments offered free by the Yahoo company for earn money starting from a simple click.
Keywords: the internet, search marketing tools, returns of investment.

The Romanian media - an overview
Laura Maliţa  38

Abstract: The Romanian Media Sector from the last 17 years can be described as a dinamic one. In the current study, which is also a part of national report of the Grundtvig 2 project “The Influence of Media in Adult Education Development” 06-G2-94-TM-RO-C, we divided the media sector into: printed media, audio-visual media, media based on web and new media. Within this article, I tried to present a short history, state of the art, as well as the tendencies on short term, for each of them.
Keywords: newspapers, audiovizual media, media based on the web, new media.

A Cram of E-Learning Advantages and Disadvantages
Ileana Gabriela Niculescu-Aron, Laura Asandului, Miruna Mazurencu Marinescu, Constanţa Mihăescu  45

Abstract: In today’s society, following the exponential development of ICT, the classical method of learning has undergone numerous changes. The emergence of the Internet has accelerated these changes due to its capacity to offer multiple possibilities of access to information, in-struction, all based on dynamic technologies, transparency and open dialogue. It can be well said that the Internet is turning into an arbiter for the access to education and culture, while eLearning is a new form of education that suggests itself as an alternative with a view to the needs of continuing training and knowledge.
The most widely known results of this change are obvious in two learning models mediated by ICT: eLearning and Computer-assisted learning. As well as the classical models, these models imply an efficient learning process based on well-grounded cooperation and commu-nication activities. Moreover, these models require appropriate technology and equipment. It is also important for the eLearners to have knowledge of the new technologies.
The great advantage of eLearning is the abolition of formal barriers by eliminating distances, by introducing temporal flexibility and the creation of a new type of student-teacher relation-ship.
The authors have asked the question whether the greatest advantages of this new way of learning and refreshing will still hold for those of a higher educational and financial status, thus deepening unequal opportunity of chances. A team of members of the teaching staff of “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi (UAIC) and the Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest (ASE) have carried out a survey among the students of the two institutions regard-ing the students’ perceptions, expectations and attitudes related to eLearning and the identifi-cation of the profile of the student with access to this form of education.
The paper presents some of the most important findings of this research.
Keywords: e-learning, Internet, survey, educational process.

The Intellectual Training Environment for Prolog Programming Language
Serghei Pelin 51

Abstract: In this work is described a new complex training system, named SPprolog, intended for training and self-training in logic programming language - Prolog. This system includes elements related to Prolog and logic programming, and the elements of independent, com-plex, self-sufficient training system which is capable considerably to increase the quality of self-training, and to be effective assistant in training. The most useful application of the sys-tem can be in distance education and self-training. The main elements of SPprolog system are:
• Functionally expanded (in comparison with existing systems) Prolog development environ-ment, with the multipurpose code editor, the automated organization system of the personal tools, automated advice mode "Expert Advice", based on the incorporated expert system for cultivated, effective and optimized programming;
• Link to foreign Prolog programs compiler which allow to compile the program to inde-pendent executable;
• Built in intellectual, interactive, multimedia Prolog interpreter integrated with expert sys-tem and the elements of the intellectuality, allowing to lead detailed program interpretation, with popular and evident, explanation of the theory and mechanisms used in it, applying audiovisual effects to increase the level of naturalness of process of explanation;
• Full digital training course of Prolog programming language presented in the form of the matrix of knowledge and supplied system of consecutive knowledge reproduction for self-training and evaluation;
• an intensive course of training to the Prolog language and SPprolog system, based on the programmed, consecutive set of actions, allowing using the previous two mechanisms of sys-tem for popular and evident explanation of the main principles of work of system and Prolog language.
Keywords: training, prolog, environment, SPprolog.

Computer Aided Education Systems in Knowledge Based Society: from SUPER-Test to MULTIMEDIA & OFFICE-Test
Dumitru Todoroi, Elena Nechita, Gloria Cerasela Crişan, Zinaida Todoroi, Nicoleta Todoroi  56

Abstract: This paper analyzes the testing and self-testing processes for the Computer Aided Education System (CAES) SuperTest Package [14], used at the Academy of Economic Studies of Chişinău, Moldova and recently implemented at the University of Bacău, Romania and Ciprian Porumbescu” College, Chişinău. We also discuss here the development of such type of CAES as MULTIMEDIA and MULTIMEDIA&OFFICE Testing Methods - the CAES soft-ware - from the Information Society and Knowledge Society point of view.
Keywords: Computer aided education systems, test, knowledge based society.

Criteria for the selection of ERP software
Adina Uţă, Iulian Întorsureanu, Rodica Mihalca  63

Abstract: The implementation of an ERP software package is an important investment for an organization, which is characterized also by a high degree of risk. Selecting the most appro-priate software is a necessary condition for a successful implementation. This paper is de-scribing the major aspects of software selection in general and the relevant criteria in the case of ERP software.
Keywords: ERP, software, selection.

Components of a Business Intelligence software solution
Daniel Balaceanu  67

Abstract: Business intelligence (BI) is a business management term which refers to applications and technologies which are used to gather, provide access to, and analyze data and information about company operations. Business intelligence systems can help companies have a more comprehensive knowledge of the factors affecting their business, such as metrics on sales, production, internal operations, and they can help companies to make better business decisions.[3]
The ability to extract and present information in a meaningful way is vital for any business management application. Business Intelligence enables companies to make better decisions faster than ever before by providing the right information to the right people at the right time. Employees increasingly find that they suffer from information overload and need solutions that provide the analysis to effectively make decisions. Whether they are working on the strategic, the tactical, or the operational level, business intelligence applications provides tools to make informed decisions a more natural part of all employees everyday work experience.
Keywords: business intelligence, KPI (Key Performance Indicator), software architecture, data warehouse, pivot table

SEO Techniques for Business Websites
Alexandru ENĂCEANU 74

Abstract: In the world of website marketing, search engines are an essential key to success. They are the most important way to bring traffic to websites. Understanding how search en-gines work and what they require is an important first step to harnessing their marketing power. There are proven methods to search engine marketing involving website design, con-tent adaptation, and keyword strategy. The primary goal of these methods is to bring traffic to your site. The secondary goal is for that traffic to be targeted to your product. In the internet marketing game, exposure is essential. But marketing efficiency requires effective exposure to the right prospects.
Keywords: SEO, search engine optimization, pagerank, business website, Internet

Data Mining Techniques of  Xml Data Warehouse
Loredana Mocean 78

Abstract: In this paper we will try to answer to some questions referring to hypertext. In the same time our purpose is to explain what we mean by a query in the context of XQL, and to present a simple model, which will serve as a framework for the future research.
Keywords. techniques, XML, XQL, query, data mining.

Building a Data Warehouse step by step
Manole VELICANU, Gheorghe MATEI 83

Abstract: Data warehouses have been developed to answer the increasing demands of quality information required by the top managers and economic analysts of organizations. Their im-portance in now a day business area is unanimous recognized, being the foundation for de-veloping business intelligence systems. Data warehouses offer support for decision-making process, allowing complex analyses which cannot be properly achieved from operational sys-tems.
This paper presents the ways in which a data warehouse may be developed and the stages of building it.
Keywords: data warehouse, data mart, data integration, database management system, OLAP, data mining.

Paradigms of Intelligent Systems
Dana Ramona ANDRIŞESCU  90

Abstract: This paper approaches the subject of paradigms for the categories of intelligent sys-tems. First we can look at the term paradigm in its scientific meaning and then we make ac-quaintance with the main categories of intelligent systems (expert systems, intelligent systems based on genetic algorithms, artificial neuronal systems, fuzzy systems, hybrid intelligent sys-tems). We will see that every system has one or more paradigms, but hybrid intelligent sys-tems combine paradigms because they are made of different technologies.
This research has been made under the guidance of Dr. Ioan ANDONE, Professor and Direc-tor of Research Laboratory.
Keywords: paradigm, intelligent systems, expert systems, genetic algorithms, fuzzy systems, artificial neuronal networks, hybrid intelligent systems.

Considerations on Accounting Intelligent Systems Importance

Abstract: Managers begin to realize the importance of artificial intelligence technologies for their organizations. Knowledge is today seen as the main organizational resource and that is what intelligent systems are about: manipulating knowledge. In this paper we highlight the main reasons that an accountant can bring to his managers to emphasize this idea: in-telligent systems are really needful in modern accounting.
Keywords: accounting, intelligent system, knowledge, decision, competition, learning

The Logic Process Formalism of the Informational Domain
Ion Burlacu 100

Abstract: The performance of present-day informational technologies has two main properties: the universality of the structures used and the flexibility of the final user’s interfaces. The first determines the potential cover area of the informational domain. The second determines the diversity and efficiency of processing methods of the proceedings being automated.
The mentioned aspects are of great importance in agriculture and ecology because there are complex processes and considerable volumes of used information. For example, the meteoro-logical processes are a part of the ecological one like habitats’ existential conditions and are known as a complex prognostic problem. The latter needs considerable computational re-sources to solve the appropriate equations. Likewise, agriculture as a controlled activity un-der strong impact from natural conditions has the same high requirements for diverse struc-tures and flexibility of information processing.
Keywords: informational technology, flexibility, universality, cybernetic model, informational domain

Comparative Analysis of Business Object Approaches
Alina Vlăşceanu, Roxana-Adina Irimia 106

Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of several technologies for developing distributed applications. The specific technologies into consideration are: one focused on COM/DCOM/COM + Microsoft technologies, Internet Explorer and ActiveX – and the other focused on Netscape, CORBA, JAVA/J2EE solutions.
Rapidly changing business processes require quick adaptation of supporting information sys-tems. Component technologies in general and business objects, in particular seem a promis-ing approach.
In this paper, we survey, analysis and compare objects approaches. We develop a comparison model covering concepts, distribution infrastructure, object facilities and object solutions. We then use the model to analysis the Combined Submission to the OMG Business Object Do-main. Each of the approaches allows us to compare them analytically.
Keywords: integrated technologies, interoperability, distributed systems, components, dis-tributed architecture

Beyond the Object
Cristina COCULESCU 111

Abstract: Object orientation (OO) is regained not only in all components of integrate develop-ment media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last applica-tion domain – of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications.
OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot’s programming and modeling needn’t be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be re-searched so on.
Keywords: object orientation, adaptability, re-usability component wares, mega-programming, generative programming.

Translating programming languages for intermediate codes 
Ioan Daniel Hunyadi, Mircea Muşan 117

Abstract: Many of the important data structures used in a compiler are intermediate representa-tions of the program being compiled. Often these representations take the form of trees, with several node types, each of which has different attributes. Tree representations can be de-scribed with grammars, just like programming languages. For each grammar rule, there is one constructor that belongs to the class for its left-hand-side symbol. I simply extend the ab-stract class with a “concrete” class for each grammar rule. Each grammar rule has right-hand-side components that must be represented in the data structures.
Keywords: compiler, lexical analysis, abstract syntax, intermediate representation, abstract machine language

Ajax Mistakes
Iulian ILIE-NEMEDI 122

Abstract: Ajax, shorthand for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, is a web development tech-nique for creating interactive web applications. The intent is to make web pages feel more re-sponsive by exchanging small amounts of data with the server behind the scenes, so that the entire web page does not have to be reloaded each time the user requests a change. This is meant to increase the web page's interactivity, speed, and usability. However, there are sev-eral common mistakes using it, like: using Axaj just for the sake of Ajax, moreover the back button of the browser become unuseful, there might be a delay displaying enhanced GUI wid-gets, offline content is not supported, concurrent page loading is dramatically slowed down, sensitive information might be sent encrypted, cross-browser implementation is not one of de-velopers primary concerns, concurrent access is not well supported, running the entire appli-cation on the client side makes it slower, there is no support for user without a JavaScript en-able browser, GUI might change unexpectedly, there are no URLs which may be referred and indexed by users and search engines, pop-up blockers might kill opening windows, there are a lot of asynchronous operations happening in the background which might be difficult to be controlled, inventing new controls which are less intuitive than the classic ones, style and in-ternationalization issues due to partial page rendering, the lack of data posted back from the user, Web traffic cannot be reported for each section of a given site.
Keywords: Web Technologies, Web Frameworks, AJAX, Asynchronous HTTP Request, User-friendly Interfaces

More General Credibility Models
Virginia Atanasiu 126

Abstract: This communication gives some extensions of the original Bühlmann model. The paper is devoted to semi-linear credibility, where one examines functions of the random variables representing claim amounts, rather than the claim amounts themselves.
Keywords: contracts, unbiased estimators, structure parameters, several approximating func-tions, semi-linear credibility theory, unique optimal function, parameter estimation, hierarchical semi-linear credibility theory.

Applying the Moment Generating Functions to the Study of Probability Distributions
Silvia SPĂTARU 132

Abstract: In this paper, we describe a tool to aid in proving theorems about random variables, called the moment generating function, which converts problems about probabilities and expectations into problems from calculus about function values and derivates. We show how the moment generating function determinates the moments and how the moments can be used to recover the moment generating function. Using of moment generating functions to find distributions of functions of random variables is presented. A standard form of the central limit theorem is also stated and proved.
Keywords: probability distribution, probability density function, moment generating function, central limit theorem.

INFOREC Association 138