Vol. 26 No. 3/2022

Aspects of Social Engineering and Its Modalities to Countercharge and Prevent It
In an Information Age that has been subjected to the phenomenon of forced digitalization, human propensity towards false information and the susceptibility to social engineering attacks have become a major concern in the field of information security. Nowadays, information security is dependent on the recognition and the user’s awareness of risks associated with social engineering attacks since, unlike the mainstream information threats, social engineering not only exploits the technological aspect of illicit information gathering, but emphasizes the manipulation of the human factor in order to accomplish the intended result. Therefore, the preconception that the victim of a cyber-attack is without culpability can be seen as a consequence of the mystification of cybersecurity and a lack of informedness on the part of the typical user.
Keywords: Social Engineering, Susceptibility, Forced Digitalization, Information Security, Cyber Attack, Recognition, Awareness, Manipulation

Digitalization of Romanian Education System: Is Romania Ready to Embrace Education 4.0?
Andreea-Cristina STROE 16
Due to the technological changes that have occurred in the last years, Education 4.0, a new educational paradigm has emerged. Romania, as any other country in the world, will face some challenges in order to adapt to the new educational context. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of measures undertaken by our country in order to adapt to the changes. This paper relies on a theoretical study of the actions proposed by Romanian authorities. These actions will be analyzed in comparison with the regulations proposed by the European Union. Moreover, the study will focus on the degree of implementation of the actions and the perspectives our country has in order to meet the new global context. Overall, this paper contributes to the literature by placing Romanian education system in the new educational context brought to public attention by the Education 4.0 paradigm. In addition, it will find arguments in favor or against the alignment of our country with the new educational tends.
Keywords: Education 4.0, Romanian Undergraduate Education, Digitalization, Digital Education, Technologized Educational System

A Brief Inquiry into the Evolution of Inflation during the Fall of Communism, Global Financial Crisis (2008-2009) and COVID-19 Pandemic
Elena-Aura GRIGORESCU, Dimitrie-Daniel PLĂCINTĂ, Florin-Valeriu PANTELIMON, Bogdan-Ştefan POSEDARU, Andrei BOBOCEA,  Corina Marina MIREA 26
Our research shows that major economic events (or shocks) do influence inflation. The positive correlation coefficients show that each of these shocks had repercussions on the inflation in the countries analyzed. This can be explained by the fact that economies, especially in the last two decades, became more interconnected, thus increasing the risk of spillovers. At the country level, differences in the levels of inflation can be explained, most likely, by the specific fundamentals of each economy or, perhaps, each region. The results may be biased by the rather specific circumstances that prevailed after the global financial crisis i.e. unconventional monetary policy measures and public support during the COVID-19. The last two events analyzed show that authorities can support aggregate demand, but if this stimulus is not paired with the necessary reforms to support the aggregate supply as well, then economic growth and resilience, together with a low and stable inflation, cannot be achieved.
Keywords: Inflation, South-East Europe, pandemic, COVID-19, Monetary policy, Communism, the Global Financial Crisis

Study of Development Trends and Application Risks of Cryptocurrency and Blockchain Technologies in the Digital Environment
Alovsat Garaja ALIYEV 37
The paper is devoted to the study of the formation and development trends of cryptocurrency and blockchain technologies in the digital economic environment, as well as the risks and dangers of their application. According to the features of classification, the main features of virtual currencies have been explained. The risks and dangers that may arise with the regular use of cryptocurrency and blockchain technologies emerging in the digital environment were considered. As a result of the transformation of digital technologies, the study of the problems of formation and development of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies is one the urgent issue. As a result of improving the management of economic and business processes on the basis of modern ICT, a digital economic environment with new non-traditional technological features is being formed. The possibilities of applying cryptocurrency and blockchain technologies in economic structures and processes in the new economic environment have been explored. The security features of blockchain technology and the mechanism of operation of the cryptocurrency have been explained. The differences between cryptocurrency and traditional money have been explained, and the essence of different approaches to cryptocurrencies in the international arena has been analyzed. Statistical analysis of scientific publications on cryptocurrencies has been conducted. The capitalization dynamics of cryptocurrency are presented. The rating of cryptocurrencies is shown according to the level of capitalization. The dynamics of price changes in Bitcoin are given. The structural content of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies was explained, and their application in economic operations was studied. The risks and dangers of cryptocurrency in the digital environment were analyzed. The mechanism of their operation in business and financial operations was explained. The dangers of the use of cryptocurrencies in the existing traditional financial system have been identified. The problems of legal regulation of cryptocurrencies in the world have been analyzed. It was noted that although the use of such technologies poses risks and threats in modern financial markets and cryptocurrency exchanges, they can create new opportunities and prospects for the future development of the country's economy in the digital environment. In the 4.0 Industrial Platform in the Digital Environment, some recommendations have been given for preventing the risks and dangers of using cryptocurrency and blockchain technologies.
Keywords: Digital transformation, Digital economy, Digitalization, Digital economic environment, Digital currency, Bitcoin, Cryptocurrency, Blockchain technology, Risks and dangers of use, Cryptocurrency exchanges

Application of the MARCOS Method in Analysis of the Positioning of Electronic Trade of the European Union and Serbia
Radojko LUKIC 50
The issue of the development of digitization and electronic trade is very challenging, significant and complex. Bearing that in mind, this paper comparatively analyzes the position of electronic trade of the countries of the European Union and Serbia based on the MARCOS method. The obtained empirical results of the research show that the top five countries of the European Union in terms of the development of electronic business in trade are in order: Finland, Austria, Netherlands, Spain, and Sweden. Out of the twenty-eight countries included in the research of the problem treated in this work, Romania ranks last. As far as the electronic trade business of Serbia is concerned, it is in the twenty-fourth place. It is in a worse position compared to Slovenia and Croatia. By rank, Slovenia is in sixth place, and Croatia is in twenty-first place. Certainly, the differences in the development of electronic business are reflected in their own way on the performance of trade between the European Union and Serbia. As is well known, electronic trade has significantly mitigated the negative effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on trade performance. In the future, it is absolutely necessary to improve the digitization of the entire business of trade in all member countries of the European Union and Serbia. This will have a positive impact on their performance.
Keywords: Electronic trade, European Union, MARCOS method, Positioning, Serbia

M-learning and E-learning Educational Solutions Impact in the COVID-19 Pandemic
Rareș C. CIOBANU 64
In the two years the world faced an unprecedented crisis, the emergence, and the rapid spread of the COVID-19 virus. The situation has transformed in a pandemic which led to an accelerated digitalization of many businesses and services, including teleworking and video conferencing, access to healthcare and education. The education sector is one of the many sectors impacted by this crisis where many students of all ages had to adapt to the situation. The study includes a detailed analysis of m-learning and e-learning and their usage in several countries in the educational area during pandemic. In this paper it is analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in different countries over the education sector, the importance of the online learning and we provided a short glimpse on how the governments handled this situation in terms of measures took in this unique and unpredictable case. The study compared the situation in multiple countries in terms of digital presence and access to learning. The implications of the study might be helpful for decision makers in developing further e-learning and m-learning solutions to be used in crisis situations to prevent all the shortcomings registered in this pandemic and to propose actions to be followed to guarantee students' access to education. The findings of the study reveal that although there is a rapid spread of the technology worldwide that was used to organize the education process on short term, there is still a high number of students with lack of access to education if the pandemic will continue for many other months, or in the case when a similar scenario might ever occur.
Keywords: Education system, COVID-19, m-learning, e-learning

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